Author Archives: Jinwoo Leem

Modelling antibodies, from Sequence, to Structure…

Antibody modelling has come a long way in the past 5 years. The Antibody Modelling Assessment (AMA) competitions (effectively an antibody version of CASP) have shown that most antibody design methods are capable of modelling the antibody variable fragment (Fv) at ≤ 1.5Å. Despite this feat, AMA-II provided two important lessons:

1. We can still improve our modelling of the framework region and the canonical CDRs.

Stage two of the AMA-II competition showed that CDR-H3 modelling improves once the correct crystal structure was provided (bar the H3 loop, of course). In addition, some of the canonical CDRs (e.g. L1) were modelled poorly, and some of the framework loops had also been poorly modelled.

2. We can’t treat orientation as if it doesn’t exist.

Many pipelines are either vague about how they predict the orientation, or have no explicit explanation on how the orientation will be predicted for the model structure. Given how important the orientation can be toward the antibody’s binding mode (Fera et al., 2014), it’s clear that this part of the pipeline has to be re-visited more carefully.

In addition to these lessons, one question remains:

What do we do with these models?

No pipeline, as far as we are aware, have no comments on what we should do beyond creating the model from a pipeline. What are its implications? Can we even use it for experiments, and use it as a potential therapeutic in the long-term? In light of these lessons and this blaring question, we developed our own method.

Before we begin, how does modelling work?

In my mind, most, if not all, pipelines follow this generic paradigm:pipeline2

Our method, ABodyBuilder, also follows this 4-step workflow;

  1. We choose the template structure based on sequence identity; below a threshold, we predict the structure of the heavy and light chains separately
  2. In the event that we use the structures from separate antibodies, we predict the orientation from the structure with the highest global sequence identity.
  3. We model the loops using FREAD (Choi, Deane, 2011)
  4. Graft the side chains in using SCWRL.

Following the modelling procedure, our method also annotates the accuracy of the model in a probabilistic context — i.e., an estimated probability that a particular region is modelled at a given RMSD threshold. Moreover, we also flag up any issues that an experimentalist can run into should they ever decide to model the antibody.

The accuracy estimation is a data-driven estimation of model quality. Many pipelines end up giving you just a model – but there’s no way of determining model accuracy until the native structure is determined. This is particularly problematic for CDRH3 where RMSDs can reach up to >4.0A between models and native structures, and it would be incredibly useful to have an a priori, expected estimation of model accuracy.

Furthermore, by commenting on motifs that can conflict with antibody development, we aim to offer a convenient solution for users when they are considering in vitro experiments with their target antibody. Ultimately, ABodyBuilder is designed with the user in mind, making an easy-to-use, informative software that facilitates antibody modelling for novel applications.

Predicting Antibody Affinities – Progress?

Antibodies are an invaluable class of therapeutic molecules — they have the capacity to bind any molecule (Martin and Thornton, 1996), and this comes from an antibody’s remarkable diversity (Georgiou et al., 2014). In particular, antibodies can bind their targets with high affinity, and most drug design campaigns seek to ‘mature’ an antibody, i.e. increase the antibody’s affinity for its target. However, the process of antibody maturation is, in experimental terms, time-consuming and expensive — if we had 6 CDRs (as in a typical antibody), with 10 residues each, and if you can have any of the 20 amino acids in the CDR positions, there are 20^60 mutants to test (and this is before considering any double or triple mutations!)

So hold on, what is affinity exactly? Affinity represents the strength of binding, and it’s calculated as either a ratio of concentrations, or as a ratio of rate constants, i.e.equationsIn the simplest affinity maturation protocol, three steps are compulsory:

  1. Mutate the antibody’s structure correctly
  2. Assess the impact of mutation on KD
  3. Select and repeat.

For the past year, we have centralised around part 2 — affinity prediction. This is a fundamental aspect of the affinity maturation pipeline in order to rationalise ‘good’ and ‘bad’ mutations in the context of maturing an antibody. We developed a statistical potential, CAPTAIN; essentially the idea is to gather contact statistics that are represented in antibody-antigen complexes, and use this information to predict affinities.

But why use contact information? Does it provide anything useful? Based on analyses of the interfaces of antibody-antigen complexes in comparison to general protein-protein interfaces, we definitely see that antibodies rely on a different binding mode compared to general protein-protein complexes, and other studies have confirmed this notion (Ramaraj et al., 2012; Kunik and Ofran, 2013; Krawczyk et al., 2013).

For our methodology, we trained on general protein-protein complexes (as most scoring functions do!) and specifically on antibody-protein complexes from the PDB. For our test set of antibody-protein complexes, we outperformed 16 other published methods, though for our antibody-peptide test set, we were one of the worst performers. We found that other published methods predict antibody-protein affinities poorly, though they make better predictions for antibody-peptide binding affinities. Ultimately, we achieve stronger performance as we use a more appropriate training set (antibody-antigen complexes) for the problem in hand (predicting antibody-antigen affinities). Our correlations were by no means ideal, and we believe that there are other aspects of antibody structures that must be used for improving affinity prediction, such as conformational entropy (Haidar et al., 2013) and VH-VL domain orientation (Dunbar et al., 2013; Fera et al., 2014).

What’s clear though, is that using the right knowledge base is key to improving predictions for solving greater problems like affinity maturation. At present, most scoring functions are trained on general proteins, but this ‘one-fits-all’ approach has been subject to criticism (Ross et al., 2013). Our work supports the idea that scoring functions should be tailored specifically for the problem in hand.

 

Computational Antibody Affinity Maturation

In this week’s journal club, we reviewed a paper by Lippow et al. in Nature Biotechnology, which features a computational pipeline that is capable of maturing antibodies (Abs) by up to 140-fold. The paper itself discusses 4 test case Abs (D44.1, cetuximab, 4-4-20, bevacizumab) and uses changes in electrostatic energy to identify favourable mutations. Up to the point when this paper was published back in 2007, computational antibody design was an (almost) unexplored field of research – except for a study by Clark et al. in 2006, no one else had done anything like the work presented in this paper.

The idea behind the paper is to identify certain positions within the Ab structure for mutation and hopefully find an Ab with a higher binding affinity.

The idea behind the paper is to identify certain positions within the Ab structure for mutation and hopefully find an Ab with a higher binding affinity.

Pipeline

Briefly speaking, the group generated a mutant Ab-antigen (Ag) complex using a series of algorithms (dead-end elimination and A*), which was then scored by the group’s energy function for identifying favourable mutations. Lippow et al. used the electrostatics term of their binding affinity prediction in order to estimate the effects of mutations on an Ab’s binding affinity. In other words, instead of examining their entire scoring function, which includes terms such as van der Waal’s energy, the group only used changes in the electrostatic energy term as an indicator for proposing mutations. Overall, in 2 of the 4 mentioned test cases (D44.1 & cetuximab), the proposed mutations were experimentally tested to confirm their computational design pipeline – a brief overview of these two case studies will be described.

Results

In the case of the D44.1 anti-lysozyme Ab, the group proposed 9 single mutations by their electrostatics-based calculation method; 6/9 single mutants were confirmed to be beneficial (i.e., the mutant had an increased binding affinity). The beneficial single mutants were combined, ultimately leading to a quadruple mutant structure with a 100-fold improvement in affinity. The quadruple mutant was then subjected to a second round of computer-guided affinity maturation, leading to a new variant with six mutations (effectively a 140-fold improvement over the wild-type Ab). This case study was a solid testimony to the validity of their method; since anti-lysozyme Abs are often used as model systems, these results demonstrated that their design pipeline had taken, in principle, a suitable approach to maturing Abs in silico.

The second case study with cetuximab was arguably the more interesting result. Like the D44.1 case above, mutations were proposed to increase the Ab’s binding affinity on the basis of the changes in electrostatics. Although the newly-designed triple mutant only showed a 10-fold improvement over its wild-type counterpart, the group showed that their protocols can work for therapeutically-relevant Abs. The cetuximab example was a perfect complement to the previous case study — it demonstrated the practical implications of the method, and how this pipeline could potentially be used to mature existing Abs within the clinic today.

Effectively, the group suggested that mutations that either introduce hydrophobicity or a net charge at the binding interface tend to increase an Ab’s binding affinity. These conclusions shouldn’t come with huge surprise, but it was remarkable that the group had reached these conclusions with just one term from their energy function.

Conclusions

Effectively, the paper set off a whole new series of possibilities and helped us to widen our horizons. The paper was by no means perfect, especially with respect to predicting the precise binding affinities of mutants – much of this error could be bottled down to the modelling stage of their pipeline. However, the paper showed that computational affinity maturation is not just a dream – in fact, the paper showed that it’s perfectly doable, and immediately applicable. Interestingly, Lippow et al.’s manipulation of an Ab’s electrostatics seemed to be a valid approach, with recent publications on Ab maturation showing that introducing charged residues can enhance binding affinity (e.g. Kiyoshi et al., 2014).

More importantly, the paper was a beautiful showcase of how computational analyses could inform the decision making process in an in vitro framework, and I believe it exemplified how we should approach our problems in bioinformatics. We should not think of proteins as mere text files and numbers, but realise that they are living systems, and we’re not yet at a point where we fully understand how proteins behave. This shouldn’t discourage us from research; instead, it should give us the incentive to take things more slowly, and develop a method/product that could be used to solve greater, pragmatic problems.

Journal Club: Human Germline Antibody Gene Segments Encode Polyspecific Antibodies

This week’s paper by Willis et al. sought to investigate how our limited antibody-encoding gene repertoire has the ability to recognise the unlimited array of antigens. There is a finite number of V, D, and J genes that encode our antibodies, but it still has the capacity to recognise an infinite number of antigens. Simply, the authors’ notion is that an antibody from the germline (via V(D)J recombination; see entry by James) is able to adopt multiple conformations, thus allowing the antibody to bind multiple antigens.

Three antibodies derived from the germline gene 5*51-01, all binding to very different antigens.

Three antibodies derived from the germline gene 5*51-01 bind to very different antigens.

To test this hypothesis, the authors performed a multiple sequence alignment for the amino acid sequence between the mature antibodies and the germline antibody sequence from which the antibodies are derived from. if a single position from ONE mature antibody showed a difference to the germline sequence, it was identified as a ‘variable’ position, and allowed to be changed by Rosetta’s multi-state design (MSD) and single-state design (SSD) protocols.

Pipeline: align mature antibodies (2XWT, 2B1A, 3HMX) to the germline sequence (5-51) , identify 'variable' positions from the alignment, then allow Rosetta to change those residues during design.

Figure 1) from Willis et al., showing the pipeline: align mature antibodies (2XWT, 2B1A, 3HMX) to the germline sequence (5-51) , identify ‘variable’ positions from the alignment, then allow Rosetta to change those residues.

Surprisingly, without any prior information of the germline sequence, the MSD yielded a sequence that was closer to the germline sequence, and the SSD for each mature antibody had retained the mature sequence. In short, this indicated that the germline sequence is a harmonising sequence that can accommodate the conformations of each of the mature antibodies (as proven by MSD), whereas the mature sequence was the lowest energy amino acid sequence for the particular antibody’s conformation (as proven by SSD).

To further demonstrate that the germline sequence is indeed the more ‘flexible’ sequence, the authors then aligned the mature antibodies and determined the deviation in ψ-ϕ angles at each of the variable positions that were used in the Rosetta study. They found that the ψ-ϕ angle deviation in the positions that recovered to the germline residue was much larger than the other variable positions along the antibody. In other words, for the positions that tend to return to the germline amino acid in MSD, the ψ-ϕ angles have a much larger degree of variation compared to the other variable positions, suggesting that the positions that returned to the germline amino acid are prone to lots of movement.

In addition to the many results that corroborate the findings mentioned in this entry, it’s neat that the authors took a ‘backwards’ spin to conventional antibody design. Most antibody design regimes aim to find amino acid(s) that give the antibody more ‘rigidity’, and hence, mature its affinity, but this paper went against the norm to find the most FLEXIBLE antibody (the most likely germline predecessor*). Effectively, they argue that this type of protocol can be exported to extract new antibodies that can bind to multiple antigens, thus increasing the versatility of antibodies as potential therapeutic agents.

Life in Colour – Vim

Among programmers, there are occasional debates on what editor is best — some love Eclipse, some are die-hard Emacs supporters, or some have no preference, and use the default text editor(s) with their OS. Whatever your choice, you can never underestimate how useful Vim can be, e.g. if you SSH into another machine. And so, here is a vim config that I’ve been using (thanks to Ben Frot), which makes your vim environment very colourful and easy to read. Code available here.

Plus, you can do awesome things in vim:

Edit multiple files in Vim. Can get a little crazy but, hey, why not?

Edit multiple files in Vim. Can get a little crazy but, hey, why not?

So, to do some of the crazier things (e.g. what I’ve shown in this blog post), try this:

# Open a file of choice
:e blah1.md

# First split to two screens; change between screens by Ctrl + ww
:split 

# Now open a second file
:e blah2.md

# Repeat for more screens & lines.

Happy vim-ing!

Making Protein-Protein Interfaces Look (decently) Good

This is a little PyMOL script that I’ve used to draw antibody-antigen interfaces. If you’d like a commented version on what each and every line does, contact me! This is a slight modification of what has been done in PyMOL Wiki.

load FILENAME
set_name FILENAME, complex	

set bg_rgb, [1,1,1]  	

color white 	     		

hide lines
show cartoon

select antibody, chain a
select antigen, chain b

select paratopeAtoms, antibody within 4.5 of antigen 
select epitopeAtoms, antigen within 4.5 of antibody

select paratopeRes, byres paratopeAtoms
select epitopeRes, byres epitopeAtoms

distance interactions, paratopeAtoms, epitopeAtoms, 4.5, 0

color red, interactions
hide labels, interactions

show sticks, paratopeRes
show sticks, epitopeRes

set cartoon_side_chain_helper, on

set sphere_quality, 2
set sphere_scale, 0.3
show spheres, paratopeAtoms
show spheres, epitopeAtoms
color tv_blue, paratopeAtoms
color tv_yellow, epitopeAtoms

set ray_trace_mode, 3
unset depth_cue
set specular, 0.5

Once you orient it to where you’d like it and ray it, you should get something like this.
contacts

Building an Antibody Benchmark Set

In this so-called ‘big data’ age, the quest to find the signal amidst the noise is becoming more difficult than ever. Though we have sophisticated systems that can extract and parse data incredibly efficiently, the amount of noise has equally, if not more so, expanded, thus masking the signals that we crave for. Oddly enough, it sometimes seems that we are churning and gathering a vast amount data just for the sake of it, rather than looking for highly-relevant, high-quality data.

One such example is antibody (Ab) binding data. Even though there are several Ab-specific databases (e.g. AbySis, IMGT), none of these, to our knowledge, has any information on an Ab’s binding affinity to its antigen (Ag), despite the fact that an Ab’s affinity is one of the few quantitative metrics of its performance. Therefore, gathering Ab binding data would not only help us to create more accurate models of Ab binding, it would, in the long term, facilitate the in silico maturation and design/re-design of Abs. If this seems like a dream, have a read of this paper – they made an incredibly effective Ab from computationally-inspired methods.

Given the tools at our disposal, and the fact that several protein-protein binding databases are available in the public domain, this task may seem somewhat trivial. However, there’s the ever-present issue of gathering only the highest quality data points in order to perform some of the applications mentioned earlier.

Over the past few weeks, we have gathered the binding data for 228 Ab-Ag complexes across two major protein-protein binding databases; PDB-Bind and the structure-based benchmark from Kastritis et al. Ultimately, 36 entries were removed from further analyses as they had irrelevant data (e.g. IC50 instead of KD; IC50 relates to inhibition, which is not the same as the Ab’s affinity for its Ag). Given the dataset, we performed some initial tests on existing energy functions and docking programs to see if there is any correlation between the programs’ scores and protein binding affinities.

Blue = Abs binding to proteins, Red = Abs binding to peptides

Blue = Abs binding to proteins, Red = Abs binding to peptides

As the graphs show, there is no distinctive correlation between a program/function’s score and the affinity of an Ab. Having said this, these programs were trained on general protein-protein interfaces (though that does occasionally include Abs!) and we thus trained DCOMPLEX and RAPDF specifically for Ab structures (~130 structures). The end results were poor nonetheless (top-centre and top-right graphs, above), but the interatomic heatmaps show clear differences in the interaction patterns between Ab-Ag interfaces and general protein-protein interfaces.

Interatomic contact map between Ab-Ag or two general proteins. Warmer colours represent higher counts.

Interatomic contact map between Ab-Ag or two general proteins. Warmer colours represent higher counts.

Now, with this new information, the search for signals continues. It is evident that Ab binding has distinctive differences with respect to protein-protein interfaces. Therefore, the next step is to gather more high-quality data and see if there is any correlation between an Ab’s distinct binding mode and its affinity. However, we are not interested in just getting whatever affinity data is available. As we have done for the past few weeks, the rigorous standards we have used for building the current benchmark set must be maintained – otherwise we risk in masking the signal with unnecessary noise.

Currently, the results are disappointing, but if the past few weeks in OPIG has taught me anything, this is only the beginning of a long and difficult search for a good model. BUT – this is what makes research so exciting! We learn from the low Pearson correlation coefficients, the (almost) random distribution of data, and the not-so-pretty plots of our data in order to form useful models for practical applications like Ab design. I think a quote from The Great Gatsby accurately ‘models’ my optimism for making sense of the incoming stream of data:

Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but that’s no matter — to-morrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms farther. . . . And one fine morning ——

So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.